current issue web exclusives blog multimedia archive subscribe advertisers
Feature Articles
Editor's Note
Audubon View
Letters
Field Notes
Green Guru
Citizen Science
Incite
Earth Almanac
Reviews
One Picture

Reviews

Editors’ Choice
Art of the Wild

 

Essay
The Endless Race
A new biography explores the remarkable accomplishments of Phoebe Snetsinger, the first birder to list 8,000 species.

Life List: A Woman’s Quest for the World’s Most Amazing Birds
By Olivia Gentile
Bloomsbury USA, 362 pages, $26

Life begins at 50—under a sentence of death.

This is the thread, and the message, of one of those curious life histories that cry out for a biographer. Phoebe Snetsinger might have been simply a Jane Doe, an unremarkable matron conforming to all post-World War II proprieties in Midwestern suburbs, performing without much enthusiasm the housewifely chores expected of her in providing the creature comforts for an earnest husband and four bright children. But inwardly, Snetsinger was consumed by boredom, frustration, and gloomy musings, which she expressed only in secret fits of poetry writing. Then, suddenly, jolted by a horrific revelation, she broke free to find hair-raising adventure and an odd notoriety through the manic pursuit of exotic birds.

Shortly before her 50th birthday, in 1981, Snetsinger learned she had a “fatal” melanoma. Given only a year to live, she confronted the ultimate question: If the experts say you have only a short time left, how should you occupy those precious months? Not especially religious, Snetsinger opted against a course of good works and ran to daylight. She embarked to earth’s remote places on almost continuous journeys that were arduous and often hazardous but gilded with long-dreamt-of birds. Her violent death 18 years later contrasted ironically with her good fortune in surviving so long. “Birding has meant a variety of things to many different people,” Snetsinger once wrote in an article for a nature club, “but for me it has been intricately intertwined with survival.”

Life List: A Woman’s Quest for the World’s Most Amazing Birds, by Olivia Gentile, gives Snetsinger a full and competently written biography. It starts slowly, as more than 70 percent of her subject’s lifespan offered the author few highlights to spice her story. But persevere, dear reader—the best parts are coming up. One early plum is the appearance of Snetsinger’s father. Leo Burnett was a legend in the advertising business, a poor boy who built a Chicago-based agency that gave the world such household names as the Marlboro Man, the Maytag Repairman, and the Pillsbury Doughboy. Burnett was single-minded, intent on details, and obsessive in competition with others. Phoebe turned out to be her father’s daughter.

In marriage, Snetsinger found herself locked into a role she didn’t want to play. She and her husband, a scientist and administrator with Purina, drifted apart but didn’t divorce. Though she went through the motions with her children, they were never neglected—at least not in a material sense. She began to write dark, despairing poems; later she described her marriage as “a stodgy, graceless, larval time.”

When Snetsinger was 34, a friend in a Minneapolis suburb introduced her to watching birds. Gifted with a photographic memory and a fierce will to learn, she was very good at it. What began as an occasional visit to a local park soon became a consuming pastime. The means, though not the will, to free herself from a wife’s responsibilities appeared with her father’s death and a considerable inheritance, and she signed up for frequent birding tours both in this country and abroad. The diagnosis of terminal cancer finally sprung Snetsinger from what she felt had become her trap.

Gentile is at her best describing the obsessive turn her subject’s life now took. At first Snetsinger’s travels seemed to reflect her compulsion to pack as much excitement as possible into the time she had left. Her mother saw her as “a bird afraid of being caged.” But as no signs of the illness recurred, she acquired a sense of invincibility. Snetsinger spent about four months of each year traveling, and passed the intervals studying photographs and museum specimens of the birds she hoped to see on her next tour. She grew aware that she was engaged in an endless race against other birders to see more and more species, in fact to see more birds than anyone else who had ever listed. And like Danica Patrick in auto racing and Judit Polgar in chess, she established herself as a leading competitor in a game traditionally dominated by men.

“People would get excited when they found out they’d be on a tour with her, and were honored when she took time out to help them in the field,” Gentile writes. “Even catching a glimpse of her was thrilling, as if she were a rock star.”

 

By 1995 Snetsinger had become the first person to list 8,000 birds, but new species were now harder to find and each trip took its toll. She passed up her mother’s funeral and a daughter’s wedding so as not to miss a chance to see new birds. A knee injury hobbled her on slippery mountain trails, and a shattered wrist sustained in a fall left her with a permanently crippled arm. Snetsinger underwent surgery for a new melanoma scare. At an isolated lagoon in Papua New Guinea her guide was beaten and she was gang-raped by five thugs. But she pressed on and a year later even returned to the scene of the attack.

Eventually, Snetsinger listed (by a revised count) 8,398 of the world’s 9,700 species, a record since broken only a couple of times. The end of her quest came in Madagascar in November 1999, when the van she was riding in rolled over and crashed. Death on tour was a fate she had previously envisioned in letters to family and friends—a death, she might have said, she could live with.
Back to Top

 

Editors’ Choice

Deeply Rooted: Unconventional Farmers in the Age of Agribusiness
By Lisa M. Hamilton
Counterpoint, 304 pages, $25

Large, industrialized farms are ubiquitous and seemingly entrenched in America, and for that reason agriculture journalist Lisa Hamilton wants you to meet a few family farmers who have resisted the industry’s unyielding mantra to “get big or get out.” The colorful and passionate farmers and rancher Hamilton follows represent a tiny diaspora of outsiders who are holding on to a life bound to the land with everything they’ve got, despite economic and social pressures to abandon small-scale, sustainable agriculture. Hamilton slowly spins a rich profile of each one—she wants you to know them personally, to steep in their struggle and intelligence, their devotion to the land and quiet lives. In East Texas lives the loquacious Harry Lewis, an African-American who runs a small, organic dairy and dreams of speaking before Congress. Over the desiccated New Mexico range rides Virgil Trujillo, a 10th-generation rancher devoted to introducing rotational grazing to sustain the cattle business in his impoverished community. And amid the unending miles of North Dakota monocrops David, Dan, and Theresa Podoll practice organic, sustainable farming while feeding their families from a home garden—choices that have cast them as near heretics in their community. An eloquent tribute to unconventional lives, Deeply Rooted offers us the seeds of change for how we produce food.—Victoria Schlesinger
Back to Top

 

Ivory’s Ghosts: The White Gold of History and the Fate of Elephants
By John Frederick Walker
Grove/Atlantic, 304 pages, $25

John Frederick Walker’s history of ivory opens on Kilimanjaro’s misty slopes at the turn of the last century, where a trader’s slave has killed a great old elephant for its magnificent tusks. The book’s closing is a stark contrast: the annual CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species) conference, where ivory—and elephants—has become a contentious topic. With elephants, Walker explains over the course of his carefully wrought book, the classic collision between human life and wildlife has a unique dimension: the ancient and quasi-mystical relationship between people and ivory. Since Paleolithic times, the substance has had both utilitarian and decorative uses, the base for items as diverse as worship objects and billiard balls. By the early 20th century the ivory trade (and, a century later, poaching) was so fabulously lucrative that entire slave caravans existed just to bring the fabled “white gold” out of the African bush. Walker’s account of the intertwining histories of people, ivory, and elephants is replete with fascinating asides and a variety of informed sources, from hunters and traders to wildlife enforcement agents and biologists. And though the story ends with a marginally effective ivory ban and an uncertain future for the elephant, in his last sentence Walker issues a pithy ray of hope: “As long as there are elephants, there will be ivory. Now, surely, it is ivory’s turn to help ensure that there will always be elephants.”—Alexa Schirtzinger
Back to Top

 

Living Off the Grid: A Simple Guide to Creating and Maintaining a Self-Reliant Supply of Energy, Water, Shelter, and More
By Dave Black
Skyhorse Publishing, 300 pages, $12.95

Like a mob boss going to church on Sunday, “going green” has become an artificial way to boost one’s public image, quips Dave Black. His book, Living Off the Grid, is an average Joe’s guide to self-sufficient living, the antithesis to flashy eco-product catalogues and complex carbon-offset formulas. Black points out that off-grid living is nothing new; traditional cultures with few resources, from the Saudi Arabian deserts to the Andes Mountains, have long led this lifestyle. Some of Black’s advice is simple: replace single-glazed windows with argon-filled double-glazed ones and incandescent bulbs with fluorescents; a full freezer requires less energy to keep food frozen; a microwave uses less energy than an oven. Other suggestions are more drastic, like building a home made of straw bales, adobe, or papercrete (a mix of newspaper, sand, cement, and water). This durable handbook (the cover is water-resistant and difficult to crease) with matter-of-fact solutions is a refreshing and useful resource to have at hand.  “There’s no hype here. No exaggeration,” says Black. “Just plain, simple information and some suggestions on where to get more.”—Justin Nobel
Back to Top

 

Art of the Wild

African Air (Abrams, $40) takes photography to breathtaking heights—literally. Nearly every page unfolds to a panoramic vista of the continent’s majestic landscape, shot aerially by National Geographic’s George Steinmetz from a paraglider powered by a 65-pound motor. Taken together the collection is, as Steinmetz writes, “a visually representative mosaic” of the varied terrain, culture, and ecology of more than 14 African countries. Chad’s Karnasai Valley, for example, rings true in a serene photograph of sandstone pinnacles whose grainy peaks cast long shadows across the desert. Lumbering elephants (above) symbolize Kenya’s Amboseli National Park; the network of trails they follow cuts through the region’s sprawling vegetation almost like wrinkles in pachyderm skin. Aloft in his flying machine, Steinmetz can explore even the remotest locales. African Air makes their beauty accessible to all.—Julie Leibach


Back to Top

Book Excerpt: Life List
Olivia Gentile’s new book chronicles the escapades of a passionate female birder.